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* Writing & Citing: Home

Citing Resources

Helpful citation guides like The Writing Center guide from the University of Wisconsin-Madison will provide assistance with the most basic and frequently cited materials. For additional and more obscure material types, search Google, as many other citation guides exist from university to university. See the below screenshot as an example.

Image of a google search to find additional citation-related assistance

Managing Resources

To learn about easy ways to keep track of your research sources, try a citation manager!  You can easily gather, organize and include citations while you write your paper!

Style Guides

Research Strategies

Writing Strategies

What's a DOI Number?

A DOI (short for Digital Object Identifier) is a unique number assigned to any digital object like an article, a data set, image, etc.  The doi starts with the number 10 and might contain numbers, letters, and often slashes and periods.  

So, for the following article:

The doi number is 10.1037/0003-066x.55.1.68

How to cite an article with a DOI:
APA (American Psychological Association)
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.55.1.68

CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style)
Ryan, Richard M., and Edward L. Deci. "Self-determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-being." American Psychologist 55, no. 1 (2000): 68-78. 

MLA (Modern Language Association)
Ryan, R. M., and Edward L. Deci. "Self-determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-being." American Psychologist, vol.55, no. 1, 2000, pp. 68-78. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.55.1.68. Accessed 7 March 2018.

ASA (American Sociological Association)
Ryan, Richard M., and Edward L. Deci. 2000. "Self-determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-being." American Psychologist 55(1). Retrieved March 7, 2018 (

For more information on DOIs, visit 


What UR professors say...

“Citing…sources pushes the writer to consider what new information she/he can bring to the table for further discussion, creating along the way an argumentative niche for the paper in progress.”

Citation Managers

Citation managers like RefWorks, EndNote, Mendeley and Zotero help you track and organize your citations, so that when you're writing your paper, you can easily cite your sources. Citation managers also help you insert citations, create endnotes and bibliographies.